About Kolomna

Kolomna stood at the origins of Russian statehood


Favorable geographical position has always been in favor of Kolomna, did not allow it to stagnate, led to its development. In nine centuries, it has gone from a Slavic settlement, a Ryazan border fortress, an important strategic point of the Moscow state, the church capital of the region, a noisy trade and craft city to a modern industrial, transport and cultural center of the metropolitan area. For five centuries it was the most important strategic point on the southern borders of the Moscow principality, the key to the Oka-Volga water system. Moscow. Now it is the square "Saucer" on the territory of the Kremlin.

In 1177, Kolomna was first mentioned in the annals as a border fortress of the Ryazan principality, given the ideal strategic position, Kolomna until 1385 more than once became the subject of strife between Russians principalities.
Favorable geographical position - in the very center of the middle Russian land, at the crossroads of water and land trade routes - determined the military and strategic importance of Kolomna for many years
As a result of the rise of Moscow, Kolomna in 1385 was already legally grounds became part of the Moscow principality.


Kolomna is a traditional gathering place for Russian troops before military campaigns to the southeast. On August 26, 1380, Grand Duke Dmitry Ivanovich of Moscow arranged a review of Russian squads on the Maiden's Field near Kolomna before going to the Kulikovo field. According to historians, separate princely squads left Kolomna on the Kulikovo field, and the first Russian allied army returned.
In the summer of 1472, Ivan III gathered an all-Russian army on the banks of the Oka to block the path of another Golden Horde invasion.
In 1547 Ivan the Terrible once again brought his regiments to Kolomna to march on Kazan.
An important strategic point, Kolomna was included in the defense system of the southern borders of the Moscow principality, which led to the construction in 1525-1531 by Prince Vasily III of Moscow of a stone Kremlin. The Kremlin in Kolomna, built on the model of Moscow, was not inferior to it either in size, or in beauty, or in fighting qualities.

New and newest time


The expansion of state borders in the XYII century to the south led to the loss of Kolomna of its former military-strategic significance. The city is gradually turning into a rich trade and craft center of the Moscow land, into an intermediary in the trade operations of Moscow and St. Petersburg with the southern regions and eastern markets. which today is its historical and official symbol.
In the second half of the 19th century, a new stage in the development of Kolomna began. The impetus for it was the construction of the Moscow-Saratov railway and the creation of a machine-building plant associated with it.
The growth of industry at the beginning of the 20th century transferred Kolomna from the category of merchant cities to the category of industrial ones.
war a significant part of its inhabitants, in the 1920s the city begins to slowly revive. City enterprises, one after another, come into operation, supplying the young Soviet Republic not only with locomotives, wagons, agricultural machines, cement, but also with portable gramophones.

In the early 1930s, the growth of the city's territory continued due to the inclusion of the surrounding villages into its composition. The population in 1939 reached 75,000 people.
During the Great Patriotic War, Kolomna enterprises switched to producing products for military needs. During the war, Kolomna was a major center for the formation of military units and formations. Thousands of Kolomna residents went to the front, thousands built defensive structures on the banks of the Moscow River and the Oka. These trenches can still be seen on the left bank of the Oka. Kolomna enterprises were evacuated to the north and east: the machine-building plant - to Kirov, where the production of tanks was launched, the machine-tool plant - to Krasnoyarsk. In 1942, a design bureau for the production of mortar weapons was established in the city. Kolomna also had a large number of hospitals. They restored health not only to Soviet soldiers, but also to the pilots of the Normandie-Niemen squadron.

Post-war and present


After the war, the Kolomna enterprises underwent a complete reconstruction, they developed at a high pace. More than 14 times (in comparison with the pre-war level), industrial output increased. During the years of the post-war five-year plans, a cement plant, a building materials plant, Vtorchermet plants, and a tire repair plant were built. By the beginning of 1967, there were 22 large and medium-sized industrial enterprises in the city. In the 1960s and 1970s, the city turned into a large construction site: multi-storey buildings were being built, new streets were emerging. The growing city has created a social infrastructure - a wide network of institutions of education, healthcare, culture, sports, trade and everyday life. The construction of a large residential area Kolychevo on the banks of the Oka River
solved the problem of relocation of citizens from dilapidated housing stock, from semi-basement and communal apartments to separate comfortable apartments.

The Diesel Locomotive Plant began the production of high-speed passenger diesel locomotives, the design of which incorporated the best achievements of locomotive building of those years. The history
of the family of Kolomna diesel locomotives (TEP - 60,70,80) continues today: they are operated on the railways of the countries of near and far abroad.

At the end of the 90s, a new period of awareness of the value of their small Motherland began - Kolomna gradually, step by step, treasure by treasure, rediscovered the layers of history and was now ready to share them with the guests of the city.
Today, Kolomna is developing, preserving its originality. The Kolomna Kremlin, 4 monasteries, 420 monuments of federal and regional significance make it a unique historical and cultural complex of the XYI - XIX centuries in the Moscow region
. And 40 museums and a large number of objects of tourist interest constantly attract new and new guests. And they fall in love with Kolomna and
come back again and again.

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